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Contents

Foreword    3
Part 1. WOMEN IN HISTORY OF CHEMISTRY
Women in history of chemistry: from alchemy until the beginning of XIXth century
Elena A. Zaitseva (Baum)
    10
Textbook Conversations on chemistry by J. Marcet and its significance for chemical education for beginners in the first half of the XIXth century
Nina V. Fedorenko
    66
Popular chemistry - chemistry for women? German popular chemical textbooks for women in the XVIIIth and XIXth centuries
Gisela Boeck
    73
First Latvian women chemists
Ivan I. Grinevich, Ilgars J. Grosvalds
    86
Dynasty of winners of a Nobel prize: Maria Sklodowska-Curie and Irène Joliot-Curie
Elena A. Zaitseva (Baum)
    97
Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin (1910-1994)
Alexander M. Smolegovskiy, Alla N. Kharitonova
    113
Ada Yonath. The way to the Nobel heights
Natalia I. Bystrova
    129
The Karen Wetterhahn story: the life well lived
Natalia F. Blank
    134
First Japanese women chemists
Masanori Kaji
    140
Part 2. RUSSIAN FEMALE CHEMISTS
The first steps of Russian women on the way to chemical education (XIXth-beginning XXth centuries)
Elena A. Zaitseva (Baum)
    156
Teaching chemistry at Bestuzhevsky courses
Oxana B. Vahromeeva
    179
Chemistry teaching at Moscow Higher Women Courses
Tatyana V. Bogatova
    191
Female chemists on the Kyiv Higher Womens Courses and at the St. Vladimir University
Katherina Kobchenko
    230
E.F. Kowalevskaya - the first Russian women at the position of professor of chemistry
Natalia N. Romanova
    237
The Russian women of Curies laboratory (1906-1934)
Natalie Pigeard-Micault
    245
Lost interview: data to the biography of the academician, Dr. L.K. Lepin (1891-1985)
Olga A. Valkova
    259
XXth century: outstanding female chemists worked at VIAM
Nikolay V. Gundobin, Tatiana V. Barasheva, L.V.Pilipenko, V.I. Titov, A.F. Letov
    271
N.I. Blok. Her contribution to the progress of analytical chemistry and development of the method of phase analysis for Ni-based superalloys
Galina I. Morozova
    279
Part 3. FEMALE CHEMISTS OF MOSCOW UNIVERSITY
Female chemists in the history of Moscow University
Valery V. Lunin
    286
Remarkable women chemists at the Chair of Oil Chemistry and organic catalysis
Inna I. Kulakova
    290
Women at the Chair of Organic Chemistry
Marina D. Reshetova
    306
Rosa O. Levina, professor in Lomonosov Moscow State University
(17.VII.1900-10.VII.1970)
I.S. Levina
    314
Vera A. Sazonova, professor in Lomonosov Moscow State University
(30.09.1913-17.02.1985)
Natalia N. Meleshonkova
    316
The beginnings of selenorganic chemistry: scientific pathway of Natalya N. Magdesieva
Tatiana V. Magdesieva
    317
V.R. Skvarchenko and N.P. Shusherina - scientists, teachers and pedagogs
Tatiana A. Podrugina, Irina I. Brunovlenskaya, Vera L. Lapteva
 320
Professor of Moscow State University Emiliya G. Perevalova
Marina D. Reshetova, Eugenia I. Khrushcheva
    323
Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory and Lidia A. Kazitsina (1915-1984)
Lidia D. Ashkinadze, Marianna N. Bochkareva
    328
Natalia B. Kupletskaya (1925-2003)
Lidia D. Ashkinadze, Marianna N. Bochkareva
    330
Ladies of colloid science
Yulia G. Bogdanova
    332
Women at the Chair of Analytical Chemistry
Vadim M. Ivanov
    338
Women at the Chair of Inorganic Chemistry in MSU
Felix M. Spiridonov, Andrew N. Grigoriev, Andrey A. Drozdov
    343
Scientific traditions of academician A.V. Novoselova - outstanding scientist and teacher
Vladimir P. Zlomanov
    359
K.V. Topchieva and her contribution into development of Russian catalysis and chemical education
Irina F. Moskovskaya, Boris V. Romanovsky
    371
The priority researches of professor E.M. Sokolovskaya in the chemistry of constructional metal materials
Sergey F. Dunaev, Elena F. Kazakova, Natalia A. Dmitrieva
    379
The Book in Brief    385
Annotations    390
List of Figures    404
Abbreviations    411
Index of Names    412

The Book in brief

The origin of the book offered to the readers is as follows . The General Assembly of the UN declared 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry and the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) appealed to the global community to note particularly contribution of female chemists into the science, especially due to the fact that in 2011 it was 100 years from the date the Noble Prize was awarded to the first woman Maria Skłodowska-Curie. At the Department of Chemistry of the M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University it was decided to celebrate these events by organizing a scientific conference Female Chemists: Biographies, Contribution into Science and Education, Recognition. Hosts of the Conference wanted to draw attention to the history of female education in Russia, to a complicated path of women into science and teaching (especially in the 19th early 20th centuries), their self-sacrificing fight for equal participation in the scientific and academic activity with males. However, besides Russian scientists foreign colleagues also expressed their interest in the conference. So the conference became international that obviously enriched its program and introduced a fresh impetus into discussion of some problems. By the date of the conference opening a collection of scientific abstracts was published and after its completion it was decided to combine most interesting reports (some of them in the extended version) into a separate issue. Some civil historians and historians of science involved in developing of related problems but in the historical and phenomenological aspect were engaged into participation in it.

The book starts with Introduction which provides a brief comparative analysis of publications of foreign and Russian researchers devoted to the subject matter of this book. The book itself consists of three parts.

The first part Women in History of Chemistry presents articles giving an insight into fruitful activity of females in the area of chemistry and natural sciences from the ancient time up to the present. A vast review of E.A. Zaitseva (Baum) (Russia) which starts the section is divided thematically into several independent sub-sections: female alchemy, female activities in research of metal transmutation and chimia medica in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, female chemists of Respublica Litteraria, female scientists of aristocratic saloons, laboratory assistants, females and chemical revolution, independent female researchers of the 18th century, fashion for chemistry: new opportunities for self-education (end of the 18th early 19th centuries). The first subsection discusses works of several female alchemists of the Alexandrias age including Maria the Jewess, Cleopatra, Theosebia. At the age of European alchemy a significant role in accumulation of practical chemical knowledge was played by nunneries. The subject matter of the nuns occupation (for example, Hildegard von Bingen) was mostly not the search for the philosophers stone but studying the medical effect of different minerals, plants, any natural item on physiological processes. Chimia medica, directly related to chemical practice in the 15th-16th centuries was the area of favour for many aristocratic ladies including f.e. Anna, Princess of Denmark, D. von Mansfeld. Another area of concern for the ladies of the high society was studying transmutations: works of the countess Cilley, S. von Württemberg as well as of independent female alchemists A.-M. Zieglerin, S. Scheinpflugova working at the princes courts are presented.

Materials of the third subsection record the time and form of involvement of representatives of the fair sex interested in chemical practice into virtual social circle of the 17th century known in social sciences as Respublica Litteraria and Republic of Women. Preliminary analysis of these communications made it possible to reveal their information value for assessment of experimental achievements of many of their female members. Undoubted novelty of this article is also a presentation of new biography[1] of M. Meurdrac, famous French female alchemist written a paper La chymie charitable et facile en faveur des dames (1666) aimed at enlightenment of women in the sphere of chemistry and pharmacy[2] .

The forth-sixth subsections of this article introduce to the Russian-speaking scientific literature names of many new researchers in the area of chemistry among them: A. Conway, M. dArconville, Duchess of Devonshire, E. Fulhame, M. Somerville, L.M. Bassi and etc. They also show how women (examples of madame Lavoisier, N.Picardet) contributed to spreading of a new system of chemical knowledge suggested by Lavoisier thus having become co-participants of chemical revolution.

Materials of papers of N.V.Fedorenko (Russia) and G.Boeck ( Germany) are devoted to the problem of women and chemical education in the 18th- mid 19th centuries: about possible ways of womens familiarization with chemical knowledge and the role of women in creation of audacious chemistry textbooks. Thus, the article of N.V. Fedorenko tells about one of the most famous women of the 19th century Jane Marcet popularizer of natural science, having written in easily accessible and exciting form one of the first study-guides in chemistry for schoolchildren named Discourse of Chemistry (London,1805). The study-guide was repeatedly re-published in England, France and America during the first half of the 19th century. Its content was analyzed on several occasions in the foreign historical and scientific literature[3] so the material of the article is given foreshortened to answer the question: How could a young woman not involved in teaching before and without a higher chemical education to write such audacious study-guide?. Another aspect of the problem women and chemical education is considered in the article of G. Boeck who is of opinion that many women could acquire chemical knowledge in the period of the 18th mid 19th centuries on their own from various study-guide and popular science editions written by male authors specially for fair ladies. In particular, these purposes were pursued in Bibliothèque Universelle des Dames (1785-1797), two volumes of which written by A.F. Fourcroy were devoted to chemical principles. To prove the main idea the author presents a comparative analysis of the whole range of tutorials and popular science books in chemistry for women published in Germany in the first half of the 19th century.

Latvian researchers I.I. Grinevich and I. J. Grosvalds and famous Japanese science historian M.Kaji tell about arduous paths into science and appearance of first officially recognized female chemists. First attempts of Latvian women to tap into higher chemical education date back to the end of the 1890s. At the beginning of the 20th century they had an opportunity to get special education abroad (for example, L. Stern) or as the majority of women in the Russian Empire[4] at the Higher Women Courses[5]. As it is noted by the authors full legalization of womens participation in the social and political life of the Latvian Republic took place only in 1920 when a new law about election was adopted and women received election rights. Since that time feminization of chemistry started in Latvia, in the vanguard of it there were L. Liepiņa, E. Gudriniece, M. Štaudingeres-Voitas, I. Robežniece, M. Šimanskas. In Japan institualization of female education started in the 1890s, just then first higher schools for women were founded. In the article M.Kaji shows that for the first time women acquired an opportunity to receive university education in 1913 in Tohoku Imperial University founded in 1907 in Sendai. Riko Majima, who made a great contribution to establishment of laboratories of organic chemistry in universities and institutes all over Japan, was the first professor of chemistry there. He was the supervisor of the first female students who came to the university to study chemistry including: Chika Kuroda and Ume Tange who later took positions of professors of chemistry, the first one made a specialty of studying organic pigments and the second of vitamins chemistry.

Some articles of the first section are devoted to biographies of prominent female chemists, primarily to the Noble prize winners in this area. So the article of E.A. Zaitseva (Baum) which includes materials about life and activity of the first women double winner of the Noble Prize (in physics in 1903 and in chemistry in 1911) Maria Skłodowska-Curieand her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie (Noble prize in chemistry, 1935) presents firstly two small analytical reviews of the contemporary foreign and Russian literature in this area, secondly it makes an attempt to highlight the key points in the canvas of events of life of both heroines differently, shows innovations mapping of their images in compliance with the latest foreign researches. The article also introduces interesting photographic materials.

Work of A.M. Smolegovskiy, A.N.Kharitonova (Russia) provides a detailed analysis of research of another woman Noble prize winner (1964) Dorothy Mary Crowfoot-Hodgkin, working in such complicated area as X-ray crystallography. Finally, for the first time in the Russian-speaking literature N.I. Bystrova ( Russia) presents a biographical sketch about the last most recent (2009) Noble prize winner, Israeli researcher Ada Yonath who also in due course started from X-ray structure analysis and later successfully applied them to study the structure and functions of ribosomes. A bright essay of N.Blank (USA) is devoted to life and activity of a remarkable American researcher, biochemist Karen Wetterhahn. Professor Wetterhahn studied the impact of heavy metals on a human body, founder of one of paradigms in the theory of chrome toxicity, by the 1980s became one of the leading experts in the world on the problem of chrome participation in cell metabolism. Unfortunately, she came to a tragic end due to mishap coincidence during one of laboratory experiments with extremely poisonous dimethylmercury.

The second part of the book Russian Female Chemists is devoted to the challenging route having passed which Russian women gained their place in the chemical science and education as well as to achievements and success of their individual representatives. The introductory article of E.A. Zaitseva (Baum) written with application of a considerable number of difficult-to-access materials from several European archives and libraries combines miscellaneous issues: history of problem of higher female education in Russia, the main results of establishment of emancipation ideas in the 1850-60s, debates in the government and university circles about admission for women into higher educational institutions. The process of establishment of the higher school for women (Higher Women Courses, HWC) in the second half of the 19th century is shown on this social and political background. Consequently two trends were characteristics of final solution of the question about possible ways of womens entry the sphere of science at that age: through education received in foreign universities and by training at HWC. Both paths, their advantages and drawbacks as well as particular characters of the initial stage of womens entry into the chemical science are discussed in the article.

In this section an interesting block of works are presented by articles of O.B.Vahromeeva (Russia), T.V.Bogatova (Russia) and K. Kobchenko (Ukraine), devoted to teaching chemistry at Higher Women Courses of St. Petersburg, Moscow and Kyiv. They provide a detailed description of organization of chemistry teaching at HWC, improvement of curricula and syllabi, destiny of alumni, role of teachers and some other aspects accompanied development of female education in Russia. Many new names of Russian female chemists of the end of the 19th early 20th centuries are introduced.

Articles of N.N.Romanova and O.A.Valkova (Russia) present biographies of two women chemists E.F.Kowalevskaya (1874-1958) and L. Lepin (1891-1985). They had very different life paths: the first one after studies at the University of Bern with a great difficulty found an opportunity in her native country to get an official position of the employee of the Central Chemical Laboratory of the Ministry of Finance (St. Petersburg); in order to start teaching biochemistry in the Womens Medical Institute she even had to use some patronage. But in 1912 she was one of the first women in Russia appointed to the professor position in this institute. Life of L. Lepin dates back to the period when it was easier for a woman to receive education: she graduated Moscow Higher Women Courses in 1917 when the official trend of the state policy was equality of men and women. Probably it was the reason why her career was more successful than that of Kowalevskaya at age of 43 she became the professor and later, after her moving to Latvia member of the Academy of Science of the Latvia SSR.

The life paths of two other female scientists from Russia are given in the essay of N.Pigeard-Micault (France): it tells about M. von Wrangell and C. Chamié. Both of them studied at European universities, both of them tried to applied their expertise in practice being occupied with science (although it was so difficult for a woman even in Europe), both of them managed to tap into large science into Maria Curies laboratory of Institute of Radium. M. von Wrangell underwent training here in 1911 and C. Chamié worked from 1921 till the end of her life (1950).

After revolution of 1917 Russian women started working in science, chemical laboratories of the Academy of Science and applied institutions more actively. One of such institutions - All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM) and female chemists working there at the middle of the 20th century is told about in article of N.V.Gundobin and co-authors (Russia). Several scientific groups (consisting mainly from women) were formed in the institute on the basis of the laboratory of chemical analysis, they not only conducted work on analysis of materials created in the institute but also developed new analytical methods, new approaches and methods. The essay of G.I.Morozova (Russia) provides a detailed consideration of life and scientific activity in VIAM of Doctor of Engineering Sciences N.I.Blok who made a great contribution into elaboration of theoretical bases of analytical chemistry. The author supposes that after internship in Leipzig under supervision of Professor W.Böttger in her activity N.I.Blok combined together two chemical schools German and Russian. Russian researchers also highly appreciate the contribution of N.I.Blok into development of the basics of physical-chemical phase analysis as a scientific approach.

As the conference devoted to female chemists was organized and held in the M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University then the third part of the book tells about female chemists of the Moscow University. The article of the dean of the Department of Chemistry, member of the Russian Academy of Science V.V.Lunin draws a general picture of the role played by women at the Department of Chemistry, how their role changed during the whole 20th century; it provides statistical data on the present situation: out of 940 women working at the Department, more than 400 of them are candidates of science (Ph.D), more than 50 doctors of science; among which 12 professors, 88 associated professors, an academician and corresponding member of the RAS.

Five articles from this part of the book (written by I.I.Kulakova, M.D.Reshetova, Yu.G.Bogdanova, V.M.Ivanov and F.M. Spiridonov, A.N. Grigoriev, A.A. Drozdov) are devoted to reviews about the role of women of several leading chairs. Consequently, their activity at the chair of oil chemistry and organic catalysis, chairs of organic chemistry, colloid chemistry, analytical chemistry and inorganic chemistry is considered. The articles present unique documents and photographs taken from different archival funds of the Department of Chemistry illustrating scientific and pedagogical paths of its remarkable representatives. The work about women of the chair of organic chemistry is the most extensive of them as besides the general review it provides brief biographies of the most prominent personalities among female organic chemists. It includes the section devoted to memories about some remarkable employees of the chair written by currently working chemists.

The last three articles of this section tell about the most remarkable women of the Department of Chemistry of the 20th century: academician A.V. Novoselova (author -V.P. Zlomanov) who was head of the Department in 1949-1955 during the difficult period of its movement from the center of Moscow to Leninskye Gory; professor K.V. Topchieva (authors I.F. Moskovskaya, B.V. Romanovsky) who was the dean of the Department for the next five years (1955-1960) and in science she was a pioneer in the area of elaboration of scientific basis of creation and use of ceolyte catalysts. Professor E.M. Sokolovskaya (authors S.F. Dunaev, E.F. Kazakova, N.A. Dmitrieva), the third of these women was the only in the 20th century woman headed the chair at the Department of Chemistry MSU (chair of general chemistry). The article considers her role in restructuring of training activity of the chair and contribution she made in development of chemistry of constructional metal materials. Chronologically this section is limited by contemporary age so it does not include biographies of living prominent female chemists of the Moscow University. Undoubtedly they will replenish science with new discoveries and review of their actions is the matter of the future.

This collected works are an important contribution to reconstruction of the history of chemistry considering its female history with involvement of vast material of Russian historiography for the first time including unknown and not-used-before historical documents.

It is hoped that the material provided in the book will attract attention of both professional chemists and historians of science as well as specialists in the area of gender researches for whom this book is valuable primarily by introduction of many facts and documents related to the history of women in the chemistry and chemical education into scientific circulation.


Footnotes

[1]It is developed by the author hereof.

[2]Probably it is the first book written by a woman the title of which has a word chemistry in it and it means that it is the subject of consideration.

[3]Including the first article in the Russian language about J. Marcet written by N.V. Fedorenko (Fedorenko N. V. From Chemistry to Political Economy: Jane Marcet as Popularizer of Science // // Studies in the History of Science and Technology. No 3, 2010, pages 41-63.

[4]Latvia was within the scope of the Russian Empire and then of Soviet Russia until 1920.

[5]The article refers to an extremely interesting source concerning training of the Latvian women in higher educational institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia: F. Milenbahs The Letts in Russian Institutions of Higher Education (Mīlenbahs F. Latvieši un latvietes Krievijas augstskolās. Jelgava: izd. J. Alunāns, 1908).






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